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# Wonders (বিস্ময়) of Egypt (মিসর)!

How the Pyramids at Giza were built is one of Egypt’s biggest mysteries (রহস্য). These monumental (বিস্ময়কর/স্মারক) tombs (সমাধি) are relics (সংরক্ষিত স্মৃতিচিহ্ন) of Egypt’s Old Kingdom era (যুগ) and were constructed (নির্মিত) approximately (কাছাকাছি) 4,500 years ago. The Pyramids were constructed (নির্মিত) throughout (সর্বত্র) Ancient (প্রাচীন) Egyptian (মিসরীয়) history (ইতিহাস) as a means (কার্যাদি সাধনের উপায়) for Pharaohs (ফেরাউন) to display (প্রদর্শন) their power (ক্ষমতা). It was believed (বিশ্বাস করা হতো) that a Pharaoh was a semi-divine being (জীব) who ruled (শাসন করত) on Earth during life and then transitioned (স্থানান্তরিত) into an afterlife (পরকাল) amongst (মাঝে) the gods.

In the picture above (ওপরে), all three of Giza’s renowned (বিখ্যাত) pyramids and their intricate (জটিল) burial (সমাধি) complexes were constructed from around 2550 to 2490 B.C. These pyramids were built by Pharaohs Khufu (tallest), Khafre (in the background), and Menkaure (in the front). The pyramid of Khufu is the largest among the three pyramids (পিরামিড) at Giza and holds the record for the world’s largest stone structure, standing over 480 feet high.

It was constructed during the reign (আধিপত্য) of the Pharaoh Khufu, the second Pharaoh of the fourth dynasty (রাজবংশ). The second largest pyramid at Giza is that of Khufu’s son, Khafra. The renowned Sphinx statue is believed to have been constructed to honour and resemble (অনুরূপ হওয়া) the Pharaoh Khafra, and it stands beside his pyramid. The third and smallest of the main pyramids at Giza belongs to (অন্তর্গত) another Pharaoh (ফেরাউন) of the Fourth Dynasty, Menkaure. It stands at just over 200 feet height. Each of these pyramids forms the centre of its own complex of structures, including smaller tombs (সমাধি), chambers, work camps and cemeteries (কবরস্থান) for lesser elites (অভিজাত).

ইকবাল খান, প্রভাষক, বীরশ্রেষ্ঠ মুন্সী আব্দুর রউফ পাবলিক কলেজ, ঢাকা